How do job demands and resources impact engagement or burnout at work?

This is a great review of more than 10 years’ research into Job Demands–Resources Theory. One thing I especially like is the evidence for “trickle-down effects” (or “multi-level” and “nested” thinking) when it comes to engagement or burnout.

How might that work?

– One study mentioned in the review found that transformational leadership resulted in fewer job demands and more job resources and indirectly contributed to more positive work attitudes and better job performance.

– Another showed that proactive leaders who empowered their followers (through consulting, delegating, enabling, and informing) stimulated job crafting which impacts work challenge and engagement.

– Another showed how a climate of psychological safety had positive cross-level effects on perceptions of job design, which also indirectly reduced job strain (exhaustion).

As someone who likes systems thinking, I appreciate this visual too.

I also appreciate the discussion of “gain cycles” in the paper when it comes to engagement and performance (i.e. non linear thinking).

Here’s the link:,see%20also%20Hobfoll%20et%20al

Citation: Bakker, Arnold B. and Demerouti, Evangelia and Sanz-Vergel, Ana, Job Demands–Resources Theory: Ten Years Later (January 2023). Annual Review of Organizational Psychology & Organizational Behavior, Vol. 10, Issue 1, pp. 25-53, 2023.

#Leadership #EmployeeEngagement #EmployeeExperience #WellBeing #Burnout #BehavioralScience #IOPsychology #PsychologicalSafety

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